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List of Metals
Ag Argentum


History

 
Silver one of precious metals, that is known by people since ancient times. Silver uses in many spheres of human life, namely: producing   jewelry, medicine, technology.  It doesn`t have pioneer, because people don`t  have to obtain it from ore. Silver used for mirrors that was one of the first of its applications. Silver solders were also known in antiquity. The ability of silver to reflect light well used so far in the spotlight. Silver mirrors have even on satellite.


Nowadays


From an engineering point of view, silver, like gold, long considered a useless metal, practically does not affect the development of technology, more precisely, almost useless. Even in ancient times it had used for soldering. However, if we open a modern guide to the materials, then we'll find a few silver solders: the AKP-10, AKP-12, AKP-25 figure indicates the percentage of silver (the rest of copper and zinc 1%). In this technique solder occupy a special place, because soldered suture is not only durable and flesh, but also corrosion resistant. The higher requirements for strength and corrosion resistance brazed seam, the high percentage of silver used soldering. In some cases, use solder with 70% silver. Only silver uses in titanium soldering.
The value of silver solders in the technique has been steadily growing. This can be seen in the recently published data. They pointed out that the U.S. only for this purpose is spent to 840 tons of silver a year.


Al Aluminium


History 
Aluminum is the third most abundant element on the Earth and mass of this element represents 8,8 percent from the it`s crust. In the history of use as the metal came relatively late, only in the 19 century, when scientists were able to produce it from the compound. The first metallic aluminum in 1825 was received by famous Danish physicist Hans Christian Ersted. In 1855, the World Exhibition in Paris was shown the first ingot of aluminum, obtained by the French chemist Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Devil. Production  this metal increased with the development of the construction industry. Since 1855 the cost of aluminum fell to a few thousand times. In 1903 was developed by the alloy of aluminum and copper, called duralumin.


Nowadays


In our time, aluminum is one of constructional materials. Big importance has its use in aircraft, where it irreplaceable because of it lightness, strength, flexibility. Also aluminum is used in the so-called alyuminotermiya.  Russian scientist Beketov discovered new way in 1865, by that method other metals could be isolate from its oxides. Nowadays this method is used in producing such metals like chrome, vanadium, manganese. There are few specific applications of aluminum, for example, it is used as additive in propellant as powder. Russian missile “Saturn” burns 36 tons such propellant during the flying.


As Arsenic


History

Nobody`s know when it was developed. Often ancient people mostly used it as poison. Aqua Tofana is the most famous case in history. Sicilian Tofana sold water without smell, color and taste. If you give a water person, she claimed, he soon will die painlessly. Scientists think that it was aqueous solution of arsenic acid with the addition of herbs Herba Cymbalariae.

Nowadays

 Arsenic is used very widely. It is used in glass production, staining metals, dielectrics, semiconductors, poisonous gases and weapons. The most promising area of application of arsenic is , of course, semiconductor equipment. Particular importance it acquired in gallium arsenide GaAs and indium InAs. Gallium arsenide need for a major electronic equipment - optoelectronics, created in 1963 ‚Ä“ 1965 years. Compared with conventional semiconductors IV group - germanium and silicon - arsenide elements of group III has two advantages. Width banned zone and mobility of charge carriers in them can vary more widely. And as mobile carriers charge, so at high frequencies can be used semiconductor device.


Au Aurum


History

Gold one of the noble precious metals, the 79th element of Mendeleev`s table. Mining and application of gold has a long history. People solder with gold in ancient times, now tin is used for these purposes.Gold capable of casting very difficult, therefore, people had to separate the casting to several parts. Previously, he covered the church, because gold has a high corrosion resistance and does not react with many acids. In 1836 the way smelting of «gold ruby» (a special kind of glass with a beautiful red color) was received by Johann Kunkelem. In the Middle Ages gold even tried to apply the medetsine, but to no avail.


Nowadays


For a long time, because of its softness it is not used in engineering and electronics. But in the 20 century with the advent of large and various properties of gold were used much more active. For example, in space technology, which requires details of possessing property unadhesion. The wide application of the gold found in other branches of science and industry: medical, manufacturing «ruby» glasses, gold solders and etc.
The price of gold depends on many factors and details; you can read in our forum.


B Boron


History

Boron was discovered by French scientists Joseph Gay-Lyussakom and Louis Tenarom in 1808. In the same year, another way of boron was proposed by the English chemist Humphrey Davy. Then in 1892 suggested magnietermichesky way to get Henry Muassan. In 1908 an American researcher E. Veyntraub confirmed the strange formula of crystalline boron - AlB12. And next year, restoring boron hydrogen chloride in the electric arc Veyntraub first received a 99% boron-term cleanliness.

Nowadays

 B4C for many years used for processing hard metal, because of the hardness of boron carbide exceeds almost all other crystals, exceeded only by diamonds. BN - is a substance which is sometimes called white graphite. It was held experience, after which it was received substance superior to even the hardness of diamonds. This substance called borazon. In non-ferrous alloys and ferrous metals boron input to improve their durability and heat strength. Minimum added to the boron steel (0.0005 ... 0005%) increase the depth of hardening, and hence the strength.


Be Beryllium


History

 It is the fourth element of the periodic table Mendeleev. The second title glucinium survived only in France. For a long time, it could not identify as element because of its chemical properties similar to aluminum compounds. First it recognized Louis Nicolas Voklen in 1798. Only after almost 100 years P. Lebo was able to obtain pure beryllium electrolysis of beryllium-sodium fluoride.

Nowadays

 Beryllium and its alloys are widely used in space, missile and aviation technology. Beryllium is both lightness and strength, and resistance to heat, so it is often used by metallurgists. Beryllium oxide has become an important material for the manufacture of shells fuel cell (fuel rods) nuclear reactors. Berillidies - intermetallic compound of beryllium with tantalite, niobium, zirconium and other refractory metals. They have exceptional hardness and resistance against oxidation. The best technical performance berillidies is the fact that they can be explored more than 10 hours at a temperature of 1650 ¬° C.


Bi Bismuth


History

 For the first time on the bismuth is mentioned in the writings of George Agricola in 1529. His further development, as a separate element, began in the 18 st century. Symbol Bi was introduced by Sweden chemist Berzelius in 1819. The name supposedly comes from the German «white mass» - weisse Masse. Sulfide bismuth used as a whitewash in the 16th century, called Spanish white.

Nowadays

Bismuth is one of the rarest metals. The prevalence of it in nature is 2 * 10-50%, while the bismuth is a member of the 70 ore. Bismuth produced from copper, lead and silver mines of Peru, copper and lead-zinc ore Japan, the lead mines of Mexico, cobalt, lead and silver deposits of Canada, tin, tungsten, tin and silver - in Bolivia. The use of bismuth is in metallurgy, physics, electronics, and pharmaceuticals.


Ca Calcium


History

 Up until the late 18th century lime (, which includes calcium) was considered to be a simple matter. Only in 1789 A. Lavuaze suggested that this difficult matter. In 1808 Humphrey Davy was pure calcium by electrolysis of wet hydrated lime with mercury oxide.

 Nowadays

 The most widespread use of calcium found in the construction sector. Cement have been already used by ancient builders. Now the most widespread use of calcium found in the chemical industry and metallurgy. For example, using calcium provide high purity metals such as thorium, vanadium, zirconium, beryllium, niobium, uranium, tantalum and other refractory metals. The various calcium compounds are used primarily in construction: plaster, marble, cement, lime, arbolit. Calcium used in the metallurgy of copper, nickel, special steel and bronze, they are bound harmful impurities sulfur, phosphorus, excess carbon. For the same purpose, use of calcium alloys with silicon, lithium, sodium, boron, aluminum.


Cd Cadmium


History

The history of developing this metal is very interesting and exciting. So in 1817 in the German district of Hanover from pharmacies to address the district doctor Rolov was removed full preparation with Shenekbeksk factory Mr. Herman. According to the Rolova this medication containing arsenic and German asserted that it is not there. District authorities have decided that a judge he should make Professor Friedrich Shtromeyer, who in 1802 the department of chemistry at Göttingen University and a post of Inspector General of Hanoverian pharmacies. Professor carefully reviewed the drug and discovered a new element. He called it cadmium. In 1818 Shtromeyer released full details of a new element.

Nowadays

The element cadmium has very little own ores. This Greenock, fog and monteponit. All of them are very rare, but cadmium is found everywhere, along with zinc in the ore. The most advanced use of cadmium - in nuclear reactors, which are made by regulators and emergency rods of nuclear reactors. Also, cadmium and its compounds used in the manufacture of paints and pyrotechnic industry as well as cadmium gives the entire 4-color. Also of cadmium batteries can produce.


Ce Cerium


History

 Cerium ore was opened in 1803, it was obtained by Mozander in 1839 in its pure form, (in conjunction with lanthanum ore), but only in 1875 first a metal cerium was received. American chemist William Francis Gillebrand made it an, who was working along with his assistant Norton. And in 1894, first patent was taken for cerium oxide used for lamps.

Nowadays

 One of the applications cerium is using it as an alloying additive to steel. But the more other additives are added, the less should be the addition of cerium. Also cerium used in the manufacture of glass panes that are not paled from radiation. Unlike other lantanoids, especially samarium, europium and gadolinium, cerium not only captures the neutrons, but missed them. The amount of thermal neutron capture cross section of cerium lower than that of gadolinium in 60 thousand times. His dioxide into the glass as a clarifier, and sometimes as a light yellow color. It is also known a polirit - brown powder, consisting of oxides of rare earth elements. There is cerium oxide is not less than 45%. This powder is used for polishing glasses.


Co Cobalt


History

 Swedish chemist George Brandt in 1735 allocated it first from ore. Name connected that the miners extract ore with cadmium, like silver, but could not get out of the precious metal and were poisoned by gas. This is called a prank evil spirit ‚"kobolds‚", which subsequently established in the name of the metal. Glasses with a beautiful blue hue received from smalt on the basis of cobalt even in ancient Egypt. 

Nowadays

 In the early 20 century cobalt is not used for alloying steel, but then after adding more chrome, steel has been able to harden. Alloy on the basis of cobalt is able to extend the service life of such details in 4-8 times. Also indispensable cobalt magnets as well as a large coercive force, or else - resistance to demagnetization. Cobalt is part of the body to vitamin B12, the lack of which leads to akobaltoz. Element 27 is required for the treatment of malignant tumors.


Cr Chromium


History

 Mineral containing chromium, was discovered near Yekaterinburg in 1766 I.G. Lehman and named ¬«Siberian red lead¬». Now the mineral called krokoit. In 1797 French chemist Louis Nicolas Voklen allocated from the metal, which is called chromium, because of its varied colors.

Nowadays

 The most appropriate chromium compounds are ferro-alloys. Steel is alloying on their base . Steel alloyed with chromium has a higher tensile strength, resistance to corrosion, oxidation and corrosive environments. Stainless steel most common brands contain 18% chromium and 8% nickel. The content of carbon in it is very small - up to 0.1%. Stainless steel is well resists corrosion and oxidation, maintain strength at high temperatures.


Cu Cuprum


History

 Copper was one of the first metals used by people for weapons. Archaeologists find various boards, spearheads, etc. The first alloy, which people started to do was bronze (copper and tin). It also has long been known two copper alloy: brass, copper containing up to 68% applied for the casings, and red brass containing copper from 88% to 97% and applied to the radiator pipes, clad steel, etc.

Nowadays

 The main use of copper found in electrical engineering, where the conductivity second only to silver. The electrical resistance of the copper in 2 times less than that of aluminum, and 6 times than that of iron. Also of great use of copper found in the production of pipes, a wide range of applications. Some countries are using copper for the manufacture of coins. In today's copper coins is added to 4.5% - 5.5% aluminum.


Dy Dysprosium


History

Dysprosium got its name because of its complex production. Lecoq de Buabodran discovered that the metal in 1886 by spectroscope, and then isolated it from the oxide. After 20 years Urben was relatively clean dysprosium. A.N. Daape and F. Spending developed 2-phasic way to get dysprosium. It made possible to identify all the properties of dysprosium, as well as the resulting metal was fairly clean.

Nowadays

Dysprosium is one of the common metals among a group of lanthanide metals. Practical application of dysprosium is a very few. For example, it used some of its compounds are part of the phosphor, magnet alloys, special glasses. Specialists believe that in the future, this item could be used in radio electronics and chemical industries (as a catalyst).


Er Erbium


History


The first was Carl Masander who got an oxide of erbium in 1843, while investigating erbium concentrates. Its name got from the name of the village of Ytterbium, Ytterby Sweden; lat. Erbium.


Nowadays


The main application erbium is grade glass. It is able to absorb infrared light. This property is essential for protective glasses of welders, glassblower. Erbium is also used in lasers. He is added in metal alloys, such as vanadium to increase durability. The pink color is used in the manufacture of ceramics and glaze. There is also growing of using of erbium in the direction of the nuclear industry, namely in governing rods.


Eu Europium


History

Demarse received this element in 1886 of samarium land. Then Kruks found it in samarskit land. In 1896, Demarse received a clean product, which proves the existence of europium. Europium metal was obtained only in 1937.


Nowadays

Thanks to its strong absorption properties of thermal neutrons, Europe is actively used in atomic technology. Radioactive europium is used to treat certain forms of cancer. The importance of the application has become Europe as activator luminophores. It is used to get red color in the television screens.


Ga Gallium


History


The existence of this metal had been predicted by D. Mendeleyev, and the opening belongs to of the French scientist Paul Emile Leckok de Buabodran. Only through scrupulousness this brilliant scientist and his knowledge of the spectral analysis a discovery was made. The element was named in honor of France, Gaul it is ancient name. Mineral formed by gallium was found in 1956.


Nowadays


Gallium has a unique property located in a liquid state at a temperature at 30 to 2230 degrees Celsius. In this regard, it is used in the manufacture of thermometers. And now the most common up to 1200 degrees. It is used in signaling devices composed of indium. This alloy melts at a temperature of 16 degrees and is the most l fusible alloys. Adding gallium in the glass it can be obtained from the high refrangibility, but if you add gallium oxide, the glass is good passes infrared light. Even aware of the use of gallium in dentistry, where it is used stamps.


Gd Gadolinium


History

Gadolinium was discovered by Swiss chemist Jean Charles first Galissarom de Marinyak in 1880. The name was in honor of the French scientist Yuhane Gadolinium. In 1898 the first pure gadolinium was received on.

 
Nowadays


The greatest use of gadolinium obtained nuclear technology. The cross-section of the natural gadolinium is 49 000 barn, which is the biggest value of all items. Its isotope 157 is indeed a record-size: 254 000 barn. Therefore, gadolinium is used in paints, enamels and ceramics used in reactors. In modern society, great importance is also of to the use of gadolinium in the material to the holders of digital information. Gadolinium ferromagnet that can be used in semiconductors. In the end, it is necessary chemicals for receiving low temperature (about 0.0001 degrees Kelvin).


Ge Germanium


History

Germanium was discovered in 1886 by German chemist Clemens Winkler, a mineral argirodit by using spectral analysis. The name was in honor of Germany.

Nowadays

Germany, by virtue of their physical properties, is an ideal semiconductor, so most of the extracted metal is in electrical engineering needs. Germanium used in other fundamental areas of modern technology: for the measurement of low temperatures, to detect infrared radiation in the gamma-ray detectors.


Hf Hafnium


History
 
This is one of the metal that was open only in the 20 st century. Its properties are similar to properties of zirconium, and still not found  different reactions. If the zirconium was discovered in the 17 century, the hafnium only in 1911 by Georges Urben, although they obtained the metal was not very clean. Scientists from the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen Coster and Heveshi were able to prove the existence of the metal by using spectral analysis and gave him the title of hafnium, in honor of Copenhagen (Latin Hafnia). That was in 1923.
 
Nowadays

First, kinship hafnium with zirconium does not attach particular importance. But in the 20 century, it became clear that the zirconium cross-section electron capture is 0,19 bar, and a hafnium is 120. Therefore, its contents alloys of atomic industry must not exceed 0.01%. The rods in nuclear reactors are made of hafnium. It is added to alloy steel, as well as hafnium was enough against corrosion to hot water. It makes heatproof  alloys.


Hg Hydrargyrum


History


Mercury is distributed in the form of nugget and composition of minerals that is why people are using it long ago. Most spread using of mercury is linked with mirrors. They consisted of 70% from tin and of 30% from mercury. Alloys of mercury and metal are called amalgams. The value of mercury for science invaluable. People began to produce the first accurate measuring devices with mercury. Even some physical quantities fixed firmly on the properties of mercury: millimeter mercury, a unit of ohms of resistance.

Nowadays

Amalgams of cadmium and silver used in the dental industry for the seals. Mercury still has a great demand for use in thermometers. While the mercury easily dissolves most metals, is not in step with the reaction metals used in doping steel, which allows to transport it to the ordinary steel containers. The main use of mercury is in the chloral-alkali industry, where it makes cathodes.


In Indium


History

Indium is one of the most rare and trace metals, because of that it was open only in the second half of the 19 century. In 1863, German chemists Reich and Richter had spectroscopic analysis of the jack near the town of Freiberg. After spectroscopic analysis, there was found blue line (wavelength 4511 Ǻ), roughly the same, what makes a well-known indigo dye. Such a line was not none of the known elements. The new element was given the name because of its blue color - indium. Until 1870, Indium has a lot of thought to the atomic weight 75.6. But then Mendeleev found that it equals 113. Later it was found that there was a natural indium with a mass 115 isotope, which prevails in the world.   Indium threads cause in some cases of the glass lenses.

Nowadays

Widespread use of Indium began only in the 20 st century. On its own, the metal is very soft: scratches can be made even by fingernail, but in combination with tin, it acquires sufficient strength. This alloy makes bearings for automotive and aircraft engines. Indium used as solders. Use it in the semiconductor industry, where the most concentrated use of indium. Indium threads cause in some cases of the glass lenses.


Ir Iridium


History

 
The element was discovered in 1804 by Tennant with oxidation native platinum aqua.
In 1841, it began studying the Russian chemist Professor Karl Klaus.


Nowadays


Iridium is a platinum group metals, and is highly corrosion-resistant. Therefore, its use as a coating. For example, it is used for coating molybdenum and tungsten wire. Iridium is added to increase the hardness and strength of alloys. This metal is used jewelers, metallurgists, surgeons and other specialists.
Also known to the so-called effect Messbauer for  weak nuclear reactions. Iridium even apply for tips of pens.


La Lanthanum


History

Lanthanum was discovered in 1826 by Charles Mosander. It is named from the Greek “hiding”, “ forget”. He received it by heating lanthanum chloride with potassium. At first, he was recognized as a bivalent, but then Mendeleev conducting its tests found that the trivalent element.

Nowadays

Modern technologies allow to receive lanthanum 99% purity, but  it is hard to separate the lanthanum from lanthanide and very expensive. Usually use the so-called mishmetall: lanthanide compound. Lanthanum is used in the chemical industry, as an extraagent. In most cases lanthanum oxide the use of. It is added in the glass, which gives them valuable optical properties, temperature and acid-proof.


Li Lithium


History

Lithium was discovered in 1817 by Swedish chemist, I. A . Arfvedson, a disciple of the famous Berzelius. He called it the lithium, which is Latin means «Stone». In 1818 Davy Humphrey received lithium metal.
The industrial way of lithium was invented in 1855. It was opened independently of one another German chemist Robert Bunsen and Englishman O. Matissen.

Nowadays

In the early 20 century, the lithium used in small quantities for alloying steel. This metal is well cleaned gases from the iron. Then, lithium hydride was used for the production of hydrogen. Adding metal in electrolytes battery lithium increases the period of his service.
In the second half of the 20th century from the lithium-6 people began receiving tritium, making the metal - atomic.


Mg Magnesium


History

In 1695 H. Gros, evaporating water from the source Epsom, discovered salt. With the impact of soda or potash, it formed a white salt  very similar to the one that were getting near the town of Magnesite. She was called white magnesia. In 1808 when Humphrey Davy electrolysis slightly moist white magnesium oxide with mercury was amalgam new metal, which was soon out of isolated and identified magnesium, contained in up to 3%. Since then, purer magnesium was received by A. BUSSY, German researcher, in 1829.

Nowadays

Magnesium is one of the most stable light metals in the air. Due to this, as well as the fact that it is widely distributed in nature and relatively inexpensive, magnesium is often used as a structural material in aircraft and other industries where  first of all important low-weight structural materials. Magnesium uses alloys with aluminum, zinc, manganese, beryllium, titanium, rare-earth elements. The addition of small amounts of magnesium metal drastically alters its mechanical properties: magnesium alloys are light, strong, durable, resistant to corrosion. Lightweight magnesium alloys used as construction material for the various parts of the aircraft, as well as rail and road transport. Details from the magnesium alloy from casting under pressure, used in the manufacture of optical and precision instruments. Magnesium powder in the chemical industry is used for dehydration of organic matter and for the synthesis of complex organic substances. Magnesium is also used as an oxidizer in the production of steel and non-ferrous casting, as a material for anodes in the cathode protection against corrosion of steel products and designs.


Mn Manganese


History
 
Karl Wilhelm Scheele discovered manganese in 1774. Although he was unable to obtain the metal in its pure form, he said, in which metals it contains. The first mineral, which was used, which contain manganese, was pirolyuzit. It is still used for lightening the glass. The metal manganese was received by Johan  Gottlieb Hahn.

Nowadays

An important use of manganese received as alloying additives to the melting of steel, where it perfectly removes sulfur. It also specifically make manganese steel. Manganese is an element necessary for plant life and humans. It contains nearly all foods. An intravenous magnesium chloride injection can save from the bite of karakurt.


Mo Molybdenum


History

In 1758 the famous Swedish chemist and mineralogist Axel Frederick Kronstedt suppose on the existence of molybdenum. In 1790 Karl Wilhelm Scheele Gelm was able to obtain relatively pure molybdenum. They are pioneers. Then Berzelius received pure molybdenum and studied all its properties.

Nowadays

The application of molybdenum in the steel industry starts in 1885 with Putilov plant in Russia. Adding molybdenum in steel gave the same result as the addition of tungsten, molybdenum, but less quantity. Then began using molybdenum alloy with iron in various armaments: in the armor, in the weapons («Winchester»). Molybdenum bearings of were made with the advent of heavy engines. Molybdenum is used in many industries. For example, in the light, radio, in the manufacture of glass. Even in the space industry this metal useful. Here, it makes heat-resistant alloys that can make the temperature of 1500 degrees Celsius.


Nb Niobium


History

Element opened English scientist Charles Hatchet. Niobium metal was first obtained in 1866 the Swedish scientist Blomstrand recovery of chloride niobium hydrogen. In 1950, this element was finally approved by its name - niobium.

Nowadays

Niobium is the metal-superconductor. That is why his property is connected one of its major applications. But much more important is the composition of niobium alloys: the doping steel - increases the corrosion resistance of alloys with aluminum does not react to it with alkalis, with titanium, molybdenum and zirconium improves strength, heat resistance and heat-resistant, with the doping chromo-manganese was attached high endurance. Niobium yarns used in medicine in order to sew broken tendons, blood vessels and even nerves.


Nd Neodymium


History
Karl Auer von Velsbah opened this element in 1885. The name comes from the Greek «new» and «twin». The metallic neodymium was received in 1925.

Nowadays

An important use of neodymium found the doping of magnesium, aluminum and titanium alloys which makes them more durable. Neodymium is also used for dyeing in the violet color of the glass and materials for lasers.


Ni Nickel


History
 
Nickel was opened by Frederick Kronstedt in 1751. Title received on behalf of gnome Nick, who put furtively this ore to miners. In 1804, nickel was received by Jeremiah Richter. He first described the metal. First, the metal is not used, because even small sulfur content made the metal fragile, but then it became magnesium alloy, which took away the oxygen and sulfur. Alloys with nickel-plated steel produced even in ancient China BC. The nickel content in them was 20%. Then it started to get into Europe. Here he became known as: ARGENTAN, German silver, nickel silver (new money).

Nowadays

Devices for vacuum equipment makes from the nickel: light bulbs, wire holder, enter the grid, anodes, screens and cores for oxide cathodes and some other parts, as well as the expansion of nickel quite small. Coins of nickel-silver released so far. In the early 20th century has been opened yet another alloy: Nickel and copper, known as Monel metal. It has a chemical resistance, shiny mechanical properties and relative cheapness. More than half of nickel goes to smelte chrome-nickel construction and nickel alloys. Karbonil Nickel is used in many reactions.


Os Osmium


History

Osmium was opened by Smithson Tennant in 1804, along with Iridium. Scientific has been able to share a natural alloy of iridium and osmium. The name received from the Greek “smell”, as well as osmium and his dioxide and produces a foul odor.

Nowadays

Osmium is the least and scattered metal. It is difficult to obtain, so it roads. As a result of all this, it is rarely used. Osmium use in the chemical industry as hydrogenate for expensive pens in tips, apply a very important medicine - cortisone.


P Phosphorus


History

Phosphorus was discovered by Hamburg alchemist Genning Brand more than 300 years ago. In the early 70-ies of the 18-century French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier proved that phosphorus alone element. In 1799 Donaldon demonstrated the need for phosphorus for the normal development of plants. In 1839, English scientist invented the first Lauz phosphate fertilizer - superphosphate. In 1847 German chemist Shretter received allotropic modification of phosphorus - red phosphorus.

Nowadays

Phosphorus has many different colors, which are dependent on the molecular compound: white, red, yellow, black, purple, brown. The greatest using got white and red phosphorus. The largest deposits are in Russia, the Kola Peninsula. Phosphoric anhydride is considered one of the best dehydrators. But the most important and the use of phosphorus found in the agricultural industry in the production of the major phosphate fertilizers. Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of matches, metallurgy, chemical industry.


Pb Plumbum


History
 
Lead was the first metal, which people began to melt. In ancient Egypt it was made from coins, medallions. In ancient Rome did plumbing.
 
Nowadays

One of the first applications of lead obtained in the chemical industry, where it makes different parts of chemical equipment, and wherever you want a high corrosion resistance. Lead is used in alloys easily fusible for the fuses in the arms, to protect against gamma radiation, in printing inks, paste.


Pd Palladium


History
 
Palladium was opened in 1803 by English scientist William Hyde Wollaston. He identified his crude platinum by diluting it in aqua-regia. The name was in honor of the newly opened asteroid named Palladium. In 1868, palladium was detected in the composition of the sun.

Nowadays

Palladium is needed for many chemical reactions as a catalyst. Out of this metal with the addition of gold, rhodium, ruthenium make jewelry. Electrical contacts made from palladium are in high demand.


Pm Promethium


History
 
Prometheus is an artificial metal not transuran origin, obtained in 1945. In nature, metal formed by the radioactive decay of nuclei of heavy elements. In 1947 American researchers Mari, Glendenin and Koriell found Promethium  in products produced in nuclear reactors.

Nowadays

Basically Prometeus used for research purposes. It can be used as a source of beta radiation in luminous paint, into nuclear batteries for missiles, clock, pacemaker and radio, as well as a light source for signals. Perhaps in the future Promethium can be used as a portable source of X-ray waves. The bulk of the metal is going for the production of radioisotope power sources.


Pr Praseodymium


History


Praseodymium was opened in 1885 by Auer von Velsbah. He managed to divide Didim into 2 components: Praseodymium and neodymium. Praseodymium Greek means «green light», neodymium - «new Didim».

Nowadays

Praseodymium ions are used to produce infrared radiation. Praseodymium oxide is added in the preparation of glass, which gives them a light green color. Praseodymium with Germany could be superconductors. Praseodymium is part of the mishmetal that alloying steel. Praseodymium is part of the magnesium alloys with cobalt and nickel.


Pt Platinum


History

Platinum has become known in Europe since the 18 century, when German mathematician Antonio de Ulloa brought samples of the metal with the gold deposits of Peru. Platinum has long been not used as was harder to forge and casting. For some time it made false coins, so platinum cost twice less expensive than silver. In the 19th century from the platinum started prepare equipment for chemical experiments. The first example is Platinum receptacle for the storage of sulfuric acid weighs almost one pood. In 1852... 1857 French scholars St. Clair Devil and Debre invented a way of melting platinum in large quantities.

Nowadays

Until the second half of the 20th century most of the platinum used in the manufacture of jewelry. Now platinum is mainly used where chemical resistance is more: equipment for laboratories. The second consumer of platinum - oil industry, which requires platinum catalysts. Others using of platinum involve in its chemical properties: heat resistance, chemical resistance.


Re Rhenium


History

Rhenium was discovered in 1925 spouses Noddak and their Assistant Bergen. The first metallic rhenium was obtained in 1928. In 1955 in England began adding rhenium to molybdenum and tungsten, which increases their strength and ductility.

Nowadays

Rhenium has been an important material for electronic and electrical industry. It is here that the most used set of remarkable properties of the metal and its alloys. Of those, make the filament, grid heaters cathodes. Details of the rhenium alloys is in cathode ray tubes, receiving and amplifying and generating lamps in thermionic generators in mass spectrometers and other precision instruments.


Rh Rhodium


History


Rhodium was discovered in 1803 in England by chemist William Gaidov Wollaston. He received it from a sample of platinum from South America. The name received from the Greek «pink», as the majority of rhodium compounds are dark red.

Nowadays


Rhodium is a platinum group metals. He has a high resistance to aggressive media and high temperatures. One of the main applications of rhodium is connected with extraction of nitric acid. So far not found an alternative more efficient way. Then the use of rhodium comes in the glass industry, where it makes the vessels for melting. In rare cases, rhodium is used in the jewelry production, because it is very expensive and difficult to handle.


Ru Ruthenium


History
 
Ruthenium was opened in 1844 by Professor of Chemistry at Kazan University, Karl Karlovich Klaus. He received 6 gramm from crude platinum unknown silver-white metal. Name of the metal was in honor of Russia, which in Latin is denoted «Ruthenia».

Nowadays


Ruthenium, like all platinum group metals, is to create a catalyst. This metal is added to alloys to improve corrosion resistance, strength and hardness of the alloy. Thermocouples ruthenium in combination with iridium used to determine the highest temperatures. In some cases, ruthenium is added in the tips of the handles for durability. Ruthenium is used to make a special paint for medical research.


Sb Stibium


History


Antimony is known to people long ago. According to some sources antimony production began in the 5 millennium BC in the East. In the 3 millennium in Babylon from making jugs. In the Middle Ages, from the learned to use in hard fact, as mentioned by Agricola. In 1789 Lavoisier included antimony in the list of simple substances, and gave her name antimony.

Nowadays

Antimony is commonly used in various alloys. The most common alloy of antimony to lead, known as gartbleya. This alloy is widely used in the printing plant, where it pours plates. Antimony oxide-3 used in the production of heat-resistant paint. In today's workplace antimony is also used in the semiconductor industry, diodes, and infrared detectors. Antimony sulphide is used in match heads.


Sc Scandium


History

The appearance of this metal  was predicted by Russian chemist Mendeleyev in 1871. In 1879, Swedish chemist Lara Frederick Nielson opened this item. The relatively pure metal was obtained in 1937. The name was given in honor of the name of the Nordic countries.

Nowadays

The biggest consumer of scandium are aluminum alloys being used for sports equipment. Scandium ferrite used in electronics. The compounds of scandium from titanium carbide are one of the most solid. On the basis of scandium produced materials for lasers used in an active-defense aircraft and helicopters.


Se Selenium


History

Selenium was discovered in 1817 a by Sweden chemist Jens Jakob Berzelius. Scientific falyun sulfur examined for the presence tellurium un it, but found a new metal. He called it selenium, that the reason was that he always accompanies tellurium as the moon, our planet. In 1938, an American engineer Cherster Carlson patented method «Selenium photos», which is now known as xerography, or elektrography. Devices based on this method used so far.

Nowadays

Today it is known of great biological role of selenium in living organisms. For example, we prove the necessity of selenium for the retina, which is responsible for sharp-sightedness. Active use of selenium was launched in 50 years. At this time the price of selenium increased by tens of times and it is connected with the use of selenium in semiconductors. Usually selenide used of tin, bismuth, antimony, lead, lanthanides. In agriculture, it is used mikroaddings of selenium in animal feed. Selenium is also used in the manufacture of glass to make them red.


Si Silicium


History
 
Silicon was discovered by Jens Jakob Bertseliusom in 1825. He proceeded to restore the response of the silicon tetrafluoride. A new element was named silicium from the Latin «silex - rock». The industrial way was opened Russian scientist N.N. Beketov in the second half of the 19 th century. The first chips based on silicium began to appear in the 1970's.

Nowadays

Silicon needs to deoxidization in metallurgy and alloying additives. It improves strength and corrosion resistance of steels and alloys on the basis of non-ferrous metals. Silicone rubber is top frost and heat resistant. Of the compounds of silicon and iron manufacture acidproof materials. Silicon is widely used in solar batteries. The main elements for the manufacture of glass is silicon or, more precisely its oxide. There is also a so-called silicate adhesive, called a “glass”. Silicon is a part of some precious and semiprecious stones such as amethyst violet.


Sm Samarium


History
Samarium was discovered in 1847 by German chemist Heinrich Rose. Metal was named in honor of Russian mining engineer, Colonel V.E. Samarkii-Byhovets providing samples for the research scientist. As a consequence, existence of metal was confirmed by spectral analysis. Samarium metal was obtained in the early 20th century.

Nowadays

One of the most important applications of samarium is in atomic energy. A large section of the capture of thermal neutrons, allows the use of metal in the management of the reactor. Rather widely used samarium-cobalt magnets, although they are being squeezed by neodymium magnets. Oxide of samarium good refractory material. Samarium is also used in the manufacture of glass, absorbing infrared radiation.


Sn Stannum


History
 
Tin is a metal that people began to smelt one of the first. The ancient Egyptians imported  tin from Persia. Phoenicians brought it to the British Isles for 10 centuries BC. At that time, the islands were called Cassiterides insulae. This is gave the name of the principal tin mineral - Cassiterite. Latin name of tin stannum comes from the Sanskrit «sta», which means «hard». The mention of tin occurs even in Homer. Tin was the most readily available and durable metal, so for a long time, it was a strategic metal. An entire epoch in the history of man is called «the bronze age». Even in the 19 century, alloys of tin had been exposed to so-called «tin plague». Metal can become fragile. In the 20 st century that «disease» was learned to treat it by adding various additives.

Nowadays

Tin, one of the rare metals. Most of this goes to the manufacture of metal cans. This method was proposed by a French chef F. Upper in 1809. Tin is used for solders, antifriction alloys, hard alloy grafts electrotechnics. A good restorer and pickle for coloring produced from compounds of chlorine and tin. Gold leaf made of tin and sulfur. Tin oxide used for the manufacture of ruby glass.


Sr Strontium


History
 
For the first time the metal has been detected in a lead mine in the Swedish village of Stronshian. This place gave later the name of metal. Strontium oxide was obtained in 1790 British scientists Kryuykshenkom W. and A. Crawford. Elemental strontium was poluchenv 1808 english scientist Humphrey Davey by amalgam strontium land. Matt glaze strontium was invented in 1920 by American explorer Hill. It was cheaper than applying at that time lead.
 
Nowadays

The most dangerous to humans is strontium-90. It has half-life 27.7 years. The most sensitive section of the living organisms is the bone marrow. Effect of strontium on it can lead to such diseases as cancer and leucaemia bones. The main consumer of strontium is a nuclear industry. In addition, strontium and its compounds are used in medicine, which is used for the manufacture of applicators used in the treatment of eye and skin diseases. Strontium is used in radiotherapy, with smelting of copper and bronze are used for cleaning it of impurities. Strontium oxide used in the production of color TVs. Pyrotechnics used strontium because of its carmine-red color during combustion. Strontium compounds are used as chemical sources of current.


Ta Tantalum


History
 
Metal was established in 1803 a Swedish chemist AG Ekebergom. Researcher long muchilsya over the allocation in its pure form, and therefore named it in honor of the Greek myths about the character tantalite. In 1844 German chemist Heinrich Rose proved that tantalum separate element. In 1903 German chemist von Bolton got the metal tantalum.

Nowadays

Due to its chemical properties, tantalum metal has become indispensable in many branches of human activity. A large number of tantalum is used for alloying steel. Part goes to the medical and chemical equipment. Tantalum alloys have shown great strides in the aerospace industry. Metal used in instrument-making industry, where the properties of tantalum are needed, as getter.


Tb Terbium


History
Carl Mozander opened terbium in 1843. He shared Yttrium land into three components - yttrium, terbium and erbium. In the early 20 th century the famous French chemist Georges Urben found, finally, the pure products of terbium. Salts of terbium were pink, as said Mozander.

Nowadays
Terbium metal is very rare in nature, so this metal is used for very rare cases. Terbium iron alloy known for its magnetostrictive effect, widely used in engineering. Different compounds with terbium are manufacturing thermoelectric materials, laser materials, luminophores, catalysts, and electronics.


Te Tellurium


History
Tellurium was discovered in 1782 by Franz Josef Muller. In 1798 Klapport received metallic tellurium. He gave it a name that in Latin means «land».

Nowadays

Tellurium is used in many fields of human activity. For example, tellurium alloying lead, to give it greater strength and durability. If you add a small amount of tellurium in copper and steel, it is an easy mechanical handling. In the glass manufacturing metal used to make brown color glass. Tellurium has a great demand in the semiconductor industry.


Ti Titanium


History
The element was discovered in 1791 by the English chemist and mineralogist William Gregor. Opening of pure titanium is awarded to L. Nilsson, O. Peterson, and M. Hunter. The name has many origins. The first hypothesis asserts that the metal is named in honor of the queen of elves Titanite. The second - in honor of the sons of the goddess Gueï, that called titans.

Nowadays
 
Titan, as the metal with high resistance, is used in shipbuilding, aircraft, missiles, medical prostheses, in the chemical industry. An alloy for the aviation industry is composed of 90% titanium, 6% aluminum and 4% vanadium. Titanium is widely used for alloying steel. Titanium reactors, pumps used in nuclear indystry.Titan pargets were invented in 1908. They make it possible to paint a lot more space than of zinc with lead. Parget composed of titanium oxide and totally harmless to humans.


V Vanadium


History

Vanadium was discovered in 1830 by  Niels Sefstremom. He named it in honor of the Scandinavian goddess of beauty Vanadis. Metal with a purity of 96% was obtained in 1869 the English scholar H. Roscoe. After opening analina Russian scientist NN Zinin in 1842, vanadium oxide is widely used in the coloring industry. During the First World War, vanadium was used as a catalyst in the reaction to sulfuric acid. In 1905, G. Ford, began to investigate the alloying steel with vanadium. This allowed him to significantly alleviate the weight and price of the car.
 
Nowadays
 
Vanadium is still used for alloying steel. This gives to steel strength, lightness, resistance to high temperatures, flexibility. Adding 3% vanadium to aluminum makes the metal very hard. This alloy is called «Vaviliom». Alloy for musical instruments made of aluminum and 2% vanadium. The alloy of nickel and 18-20% of vanadium used in the manufacture of chemical glassware. Adding vanadium in gold attached to the metal hardness, is not inherent in normal conditions.


W Wolfram


History
 
Wolfram was known back in the 17 th century, consisting of minerals wolframite and sheelit. Elemental tungsten was received in the late 18th century. He soon became the alloying metal for steel. High vanadium steel were shown in 1900 at the World Exhibition in Paris. The tungsten filament began to apply in the early 20 th century in light bulbs.

Nowadays

Tungsten is widely used for alloying, that is why so much of this metal goes in metallurgy. For example, addings tungsten to chromium, molybdenum, niobium and tantalite makes them hardner and acid-proof. Alloys of iron, nickel and cobalt more complex. Here, depending on the ratio of components formed solid solutions or intermetallic compounds. Containing tungstein steels become resistant to abrasion, prevent cracking, remain firm until the temperature of the red-hot. Tungsten steel is used for the manufacture of tank armor, shells round, missiles, etc. Even pearch paint can be maid from tungstein. It comprises a tungsten oxide.

 


Y Yttrium


History
 
The mineral, which contained the metal was discovered in 1748 by Swedish army lieutenant Mineralogy-lover Karl Arrhenius near the town of Ytterbium. He was named ytterbium, subsequently renamed gadolinium, on behalf of scientists engaged in its development. He found a new element of 38% of an unknown metal, even in the latter revealed many unknown metal. In 1843, Carl Mosander divided 38% for these three components, three oxide: a colorless, brown and pink. Colorless oxide was yttria. Three oxides of additional elements were allocated from yttrium oxide in 1879 – ytterbium, tuliya and scandium, which Mendeleev had predicted. Lutecium, another element, was added to them in. Yttrium metal was obtained in 1828 Friedrich Veler.

Nowadays

The most widespread use of yttrium is in the nuclear industry. Yttrium has a small section of the capture of thermal neutrons, and can be used in reactors. Pipes are made of yttrium, which flows uranium or plutonium fuel. Since yttrium does not react with these metals metal pipes persist longer. Aluminum alloys with yttrium is very light and strong, that allows to use it in aircraft. Additions of yttrium to the stainless steel makes it less prone oxidizability at high temperatures. Oxid yttria performed one of the most refractory metals, which found practical application in the steel industry.


Zn Zinc


History
 
Zinc started smelt in the 5 th century BC in India. Method for production of metallic zinc described in 1veke BC Roman historian Strabop. In 1743 built the first plant to obtain metallic zinc in Ekrope, Bristol.

Nowadays

Mainly zinc used for coating of various metals in order to improve corrosion resistance. Zinc is used in chemical reactions on the selection of gold and silver from cyanide compounds. In the printing using the form of zinc. Widely known zinc white, which are its oxide. Some compounds of zinc ispolschuyutsya in medicine. Zinc is used in batteries.


Zr Zirconium


History
 
Zirconium oxide was established member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, Martin Heinrich Klapport in 1789. Swedish chemist Jacob Jens Bertselius got metallic zirconium after 35 years. In the 20's of the 20-century Dutch scientist van Arkel de Boer invented an industrial method for obtaining zirconium. This method was improved by Kroll. The first use of zirconium oxide got in the filament lamps German scholar Walter Hermann Nerst.

Nowadays

Zircon oxide successfully used in the manufacture of silica refractory bricks for furnaces. The metal zirconium is added to the melting of steel, for the treatment of sulfur and its gases. The metal zirconium is the material for the various engine parts, laboratory and medical equipment, catalysts. But the main consumer of zirconium has become a nuclear power, where it makes nuclear reactors.






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